Movements: Moderately irruptive, with some sizeable incursions to the Northeast like in 1997-98. The flight calls are the sound typically described as jip-jip-jip and most frequently heard when the birds are flying overhead. Lastly, single Type 5 crossbills were recorded in Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Arkansas for the first time ever. Martin R. et al. This population most likely needs a new name but has yet to be formally described. Keep in mind many crossbills can be typed from very poor recordings, so don’t be afraid to submit low-quality media, as these often turn into high-value data. Known range: Breeding across the boreal forest of Canada with occasional nesting in the northeastern states, Cascades to central Oregon, central Rockies to northern New Mexico, and along coastal areas of western Canada; in irruption years will move south into Plains and Appalachians. Known range: Primarily in the northern coastal areas of western North America; occasional to Great Lakes into northeast, Ontario and Maritimes. Are these eastern birds all type 10 or are manly Type 7. Type2_flight_call_kinked_ML 44960 (upper; kinked variant) and Type2_flight_call_unkinked_ML 161299(1) (lower; unkinked variant). Status: West: This type was initially described as a full species–the South Hills Crossbill (Loxia sinesciurus)–by Benkman et al. Unlike Red Crossbill, there’s no “call type” differentiation in the White-winged Crossbill in North America. Colorado Birds 41:153-163. Taxonomy: Subspecies unknown or undescribed. Additionally, during the second downward modulated component, the tik-tik-tik call can level out just a bit as it continues downward. Flight call: A bouncy plick-plick; distinctive, but compare Type 10. Here, Cassia Crossbills are about 20 times more abundant than Red Crossbills in similar forests in the Rocky Mountains. Unlike other types, the orientation of the call in general is slightly from the top-left to bottom-right as it would read directionally on a piece of paper. 2012). Because conifers produce seeds unpredictably, Red Crossbills sometimes wander (or “irrupt”) far beyond their usual range. Pieplow, N. 2007. Flight call: Like Type 1, but a husky, deeper and lower choowp-choowp or chew-chew; can recall Pygmy Nuthatch or Olive-sided Flycatcher’s pip-pip-pip. When one analyzes crossbill spectrograms, the scale needs to be relatively consistent, and we would emphasize that the larger the scale the better, since using too fine of a scale can lead to missing certain intricacies of a given call type. Lodgepole Pine Pinus contorta. [eBird map]. [eBird map]. East: Type 3 is the most highly irruptive type in the East. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. Just this year, after several years of painstaking research by Dr. Craig Benkman and his team, “South Hills Type 9”, was elevated to the species level as Cassia Crossbill (Loxia sinesciurus)–named for one of the two counties in Idaho where the species occurs–because of its differences in genetics, ecological association, and vocalizations. Known range: Western in U.S. and Canada; vagrant to the East (New York). Compare with type 4. Small numbers of Type 2 can be found every year somewhere in the East, where it often associates with Red, Jack, Pitch, Eastern White, Virginia and Table Mountain pines. Get Instant ID help for 650+ North American birds. Status: West: This type’s core zone of occurrence, where it’s most closely associated with the coastal variety of Douglas-fir (Benkman 1993a), is in the Pacific Northwest. Registered in England & Wales No. To be able to identify these two types with certainty, audiospectrographic analysis is essential. Lastly, I’d also like to thank the eBird team for advice and contributions to this piece. Biogeography, foraging ecology and population dynamics of red crossbills in North America.

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